City of Glen Cove Environmental Restoration Program Brownfield Site Assistance
Posted on June 16, 2015
Client: City of Glen Cove
Location: Glen Cove, New York
Project Type: Environmental Restoration Program Brownfield Site Assistance
- Phase I, Phase II and Phase III Environmental Site Assessments
- Creek Sediment Sampling and Beneficial Usage
- Remedial Design
- Remedial Construction Oversight
D&B has provided critical environmental support services over the past decade in support of the City of Glen Cove Community Development Agency/Industrial Development Agency. The environmental services provided, which are described in detail below, have primarily involved properties along or near the waterfront in Glen Cove, New York. This waterfront is the focus of the City’s Glen Cove Creek Waterfront Revitalization Plan and the City’s Brownfields Program. The City of Glen Cove has been designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as a National Brownfield Showcase Community. The City of Glen Cove has additionally been identified as an “Area of Concentrated Development” and a “Maritime Center” in the Coastal Management Plan prepared by the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH). The cornerstone of this development is the City of Glen Cove’s Waterfront Revitalization Plan. In recognition of its Brownfield Program, the City of Glen Cove has been designated by a number of federal agencies as a National Brownfields Showcase Community. In addition, the City received national recognition as a Coastal America recipient.
Summary of D&B Environmental Support Activities
The majority of environmental services the firm has provided to the City of Glen Cove have been in support of the City’s Brownfields Program. The City of Glen Cove has one of the most aggressive and successful brownfield programs in New York State, and probably in the country. The Waterfront Revitatilization Plan involves the remediation of 213 acres of abandoned, idled and underutilized properties, including two federal Superfund sites, three New York State Superfund sites and 146 acres of Brownfield sites.
D&B’s environmental support services have included: assistance in the preparation of grant applications; the preparation of program and site-specific Sampling and Analysis Plans, Quality Assurance Project Plans and Health and Safety Plans; Phase I, Phase II and Phase III Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs), development of remedial plans and remediation cost estimates, preparation of remedial design documents (plans and specifications) for public bidding; bid assistance; remedial construction oversight; sampling and evaluation of the creek sediments for dredging, disposal, and petitioning to the NYSDEC for beneficial usage; site investigations; and addressing various environmental situations that intermittently arise requiring immediate investigation, evaluation, recommendations and/or remediation.
Phase I Environmental Site Assessments
The Phase I and follow-up Phase II Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs), conducted as part of the City of Glen Cove’s Brownfields Program, were designed by D&B to take advantage of economies of scale and realize cost savings. This assessment was accomplished through site group investigation and coordination, and included minimizing subcontractor mobilization, minimizing the number of QA/QC samples, consolidating file reviews and database searches, accelerated sampling programs using direct push subsurface sampling methodologies, focused analytical parameter lists, focused data validation, minimizing investigation-derived wastes, and reducing initial laboratory analytical deliverables packages with subsequent expanded back-up, as warranted.
The Phase I ESAs were performed in accordance with ASTM Standard E1527 (Standard Practice for Environmental Site Assessments: Phase I Environmental Site Assessment Process). The objectives of the Phase I ESAs were to:
- Identify the presence or potential presence of hazardous materials or petroleum products at or in the vicinity of each property;
- Evaluate the likelihood of a past, present or future release of such materials to the environment;
- Identify areas of the site where additional investigation (i.e., sampling) was warranted, based on past or present site conditions or usage;
- Provide recommendations regarding potential environmental liabilities that may be associated with the purchase of the property.
Sources of information that were evaluated include:
- Files of City agencies (Tax Department, Building Department, Community Development Agency, Planning Board);
- Historic site plans;
- Aerial photographs;
- U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps;
- Sanborn fire insurance maps;
- Federal and state environmental databases.
In addition, a site inspection was performed at each property where site access could be obtained. The site inspection included interviews with site representatives and identified the current use of each site and surrounding properties, the presence and condition of on-site structures, waste disposal practices and potential areas of environmental concern (for example, underground/aboveground storage tanks, storm water drainage structures, floor drains, wastewater management facilities, sumps, etc.). A Phase I Site Assessment Report was prepared for each property. These reports included the results of the Phase I ESA, conclusions based on these results and recommendations regarding additional investigation necessary to evaluate areas of potential environmental concern identified during the Phase I ESA.
Phase I ESAs have been conducted at over a dozen properties along the Glen Cove Creek waterfront and in the area. These sites have included a former boat yard and marine repair facility, a fishing club, a clothing manufacturer, a former privately owned solid waste transfer facility, privately owned commercial and industrial properties, a salvage yard, a former heating oil storage and distribution facility, a city-owned pump station and a city-owned municipal landfill. A matrix identifying these properties and the scope of investigation, as well as follow-up activities, is provided below.
Phase II and Phase III Environmental Site Assessments
Phase II and Phase III Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs) have been conducted on several waterfront properties, as recommended by D&B in the Phase I ESAs. The field investigations were generally conducted through funding provided by the USEPA Brownfield Program. For conducting these assessments, D&B initially prepared a Sampling, Analysis and Monitoring Plan, a Quality Assurance/Quality Control Plan and a Health and Safety Plan for EPA review and approval. The investigations were conducted in conformance with these EPA-approved plans. The Phase II/III ESAs additionally incorporated risk assessment for each site with respect to human health and the environment.
Based on the findings of the Phase II and Phase III ESAs, remediation was recommended for four of the properties. These ESAs were conducted for the former boatyard and marine repair facility and a salvage yard property and former fuel oil storage and distribution facility (see Support Services Matrix).
The scope of the Phase II and III ESAs included a combination of the following:
- Sampling, analysis and evaluation of surface soil, subsurface soil, dry wells, catch basins and groundwater; and
- Surveys for radiation.
Recommendations based on the findings and conclusions of the Phase II and III ESAs have included:
- None warranted, assuming that the site usage would remain industrial;
- Remediation involving the excavation of the shallow soil across the site in conjunction with deeper “hot spot” areas of contamination;
- Transport of the excavated material off-site for proper disposal and replaced with a demarcation barrier and 2 feet of clean soil;
- Implementation of institutional controls (i.e., deed restrictions) to prevent the use of on-site groundwater and to require proper handling of any potentially contaminated soil that may be disturbed during site redevelopment or future site operations;
- Feasibility studies;
- Preparation of plans and specifications;
- Bid assistance; and
- Remedial construction oversight.
The contamination at these sites primarily included metals and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to a lesser degree. A Record of Decision (ROD) was issued for the former boat yard and marine repair facility requiring the removal of a minimum of the upper 2 feet of soil across the site.
Remediation support services provided by the firm for the Phase II and Phase III ESAs have included the following:
- The preparation of a Remedial Action Work Plan for USEPA and NYSDEC approval and Brownfields grant funding purposes.
- The preparation of a pre-design investigation to identify the actual cost of remediation by determining the scope of soil excavation required to be conducted relevant to applicable soil cleanup objectives.
Selected case studies for Phase II ESAs conducted by D&B for the City of Glen Cove are provided below.
10 Garvies Point Road: This privately-owned industrial property (salvage yard and former heating oil storage and distribution facility) is included as part of the City’s Glen Cove Creek Revitalization Plan. A Phase I ESA was conducted and the results indicated that a Phase II ESA was warranted at the site. The Phase II ESA included collection of surface soil, shallow subsurface soil, subsurface soil and groundwater samples for laboratory analysis and, since asbestos had previously been detected in subsurface soil samples collected at a nearby property, surface and shallow subsurface soil samples were also collected for asbestos analysis. In addition, due to the property’s proximity to the Li Tungsten federal Superfund site, a shallow radiation survey was conducted.
Based on the sample results, it was concluded that surface soil throughout the property and localized areas of shallow subsurface soil had been impacted by historic site operations. As a result, a remediation plan was developed for the property that included excavation of 2 feet of soil across the entire site and, depending on the future site use, allowed for the excavation of the deeper “hot spot” areas of contamination. The excavated soil would be transported off-site for proper disposal and would be replaced with a demarcation barrier and 2 feet of clean soil. The remediation plan also included institutional controls (i.e., deed restrictions) to prevent the use of on-site groundwater and to require proper handling of any potentially contaminated soil that may be disturbed during site redevelopment or future site operations.
City Pump Station, Garvies Point Road: This small City-owned property has always been utilized as a pump station for the City’s municipal sanitary wastewater system. A Phase I ESA was conducted and, based on the recommendations of the Phase I ESA, a Phase II ESA was subsequently implemented at the property. The Phase II ESA included collection of surface soil, subsurface soil and groundwater samples for laboratory analysis. The results of the Phase II ESA indicated that remediation was not warranted at this property.
Former Boatyard and Marine Repair Facility, Garvies Point Road: This City-owned property is another site included in the Glen Cove Creek Revitalization Plan. The Phase I ESA identified several areas of potential concern, including its former site use as a boatyard and marine repair facility, and the presence of asbestos that had previously been detected in soil in the vicinity of the site bulkhead. As a result, a Phase II ESA was conducted. The Phase II ESA included collection of surface soil, subsurface soil and groundwater samples for laboratory analysis, including asbestos analysis. In addition, due to the property’s proximity to the Li Tungsten federal Superfund site, a shallow radiation survey was conducted.
Based on the sample results, it was concluded that surface soil throughout the property had been impacted by metals during historic site operations. A Supplemental/Phase III ESA was conducted to delineate the vertical extent of the identified metals contamination in soil at the site. The scope of this sampling program included collection of deeper soil samples for metals analysis at locations throughout the property. Based on these results, it was concluded that the metals contamination was mainly limited to surface soil, likely due to removal of anti-fouling paint from boats. As a result, a remediation plan was developed for the property that included excavation of 2 feet of soil across the entire site, and transportation of the excavated soil off-site for proper disposal. The excavated soil would be replaced with a demarcation barrier and 2 feet of clean soil. The remediation plan also included institutional controls (i.e., deed restrictions) to prevent the use of on-site groundwater and to require proper handling of any potentially contaminated soil that may be disturbed during site redevelopment or future site operations.
D&B is currently preparing a detailed design (plans and specifications) for this project, for bidding and selection of a remedial construction contractor. D&B will provide construction oversight of implementation of the remedial action, on behalf of the City.
Fishing Club, Garvies Point Road: This City-owned property is located adjacent to the former boatyard and the Phase I ESAs for both properties were described in one report. This site has always been used as a private marina and fishing club and only a limited number of areas of potential environmental concern were identified during the Phase I ESA. In order to investigate these areas, a Phase II ESA was conducted. The scope of the Phase II ESA included collection of surface soil, subsurface soil and groundwater samples for laboratory analysis, including asbestos analysis. In addition, due to the property’s proximity to the Li Tungsten federal Superfund site, a shallow radiation survey was conducted. Based on the analytical results, it was concluded that remediation of soil or groundwater at the property was not warranted.
Additional Site Investigations
Test Pit Excavations and Organic Vapor Surveys
To investigate subsurface conditions in the vicinity of a planned indoor sports complex, test pits were excavated in the footprint of the planned building, and subsurface materials were characterized and screened. The characterization included the geological classification of the subsurface deposits, investigation of potential fill materials and field screening of the materials for methane and volatile organic vapors, following developed operating procedures.
Methane and Radiological Surveys
The City’s Glen Cove Creek Revitalization Plan includes several properties adjacent to and in the vicinity of the former Li Tungsten Site. Slag and ore processed at the facility had low-level beta/gamma radiation and have impacted soil and sediments, primarily by runoff. As such, concerns existed for radiological impacts on these properties. These potential impacts extended to the ultimate receptacle in the region, the Glen Cove Creek.
To address these concerns, D&B has assisted the City of Glen Cove, along with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), to design and conduct radiological screening surveys for these properties, as well as for excavated sediments from the Glen Cove Creek. Prior to conducting these surveys, D&B prepared Standard Operating Procedures for these activities for USEPA approval.
Former Li Tungsten Property Parcels
D&B conducted a comprehensive subsurface investigation program in 2003 for a number of parcels of properties located along Glen Cove Creek. These investigations were conducted on key properties associated with the planned development of the waterfront properties known to have subsurface impacts. The properties primarily included Parcel A and Parcel C of the former Li Tungsten Superfund Site and the former Captain’s Cove Condominiums waste disposal site.
The Li Tungsten site operated from the 1940s to early 1980s and involved importing tungsten ores from around the world and smelting them in the Glen Cove facility to produce tungsten carbide powder, tungsten wire and welding rods. The slag and ore processed at the facility had low-level beta/gamma radiation. Radiation has been detected in soil in the vicinity of the Li Tungsten Site. Metals have been detected in the site including cobalt, beryllium, antimony, thorium, zinc and cyanide, in addition to acids and asbestos. Investigation and cleanup of the Li Tungsten Site, with involvement by the USEPA, has been ongoing since the 1990’s and is nearly complete.
The subsurface investigation for the former Li Tungsten Site parcels was coordinated with a USEPA contractor for radiological screening. The investigations included the excavation of approximately 50 test pits throughout the property parcels. During the subsurface investigation, D&B characterized various anthropogenic-related fill layers and liquid petroleum product. Impacts by metals, volatile organic compounds and semivolatile organic compounds were detected. The findings of the investigation were graphically prepared for presentation to the public in cross-sectional views that stratigraphically depicted the materials encountered, as well as the analytical results, and were utilized to proceed with the waterfront development plans.
Support to Legal Counsel Regarding Site Remediation Scenarios and Property Appraisal
In follow-up to the Phase II ESA conducted for the former salvage yard, D&B has provided assistance to legal counsel regarding environmental issues related to condemnation and takeover of the property. This assistance included an evaluation of potential remediation scenarios, considering zoning and “best usage” of the property, and applicable soil cleanup objectives (SCOs) to assist in evaluating the property. The evaluation of the applicability of SCOs took into account various SCOs applied when the Phase II ESA was completed in 2006. The evaluation also accounted for Part 375 SCOs associated with the Environmental Remediation Program, for which brownfields-related SCOs are appropriate, including SCOs applicable to various zoning designations.
Glen Cove Creek Related Sampling Programs
Glen Cove Creek Sediments
D&B has provided and continues to provide the City of Glen Cove with key environmental support services related to restoring Glen Cove Creek to safe navigation, and enhanced economic and recreational usage of this important waterway. D&B’s assistance has included: designing, through coordination with the USEPA and US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE); extensive and comprehensive creek sampling programs; evaluating the analytical results; preparing sampling and analysis programs for dredged sediment from Glen Cove Creek; and preparing Beneficial Use Determination (BUD) Petitions to the NYSDEC for use of the dredged sediments.
The initial Glen Cove Creek sediment sampling program was conducted in 1996 by D&B, the NYSDEC, and the City of Glen Cove. The purpose of the sampling program was to characterize the sediments in support of upland use and disposal of future dredged material in accordance with NYSDEC policies. The sampling program included the collection of over 50 samples from over the entire length of the creek. Based on the results of the creek samples, a portion of the sediment was classified by NYSDEC as Type 1, unrestricted upland use, and dredged by the USACE. Portions of the creek have subsequently been dredged and the sediments have been stockpiled on properties adjacent to the creek. Screening and analytical results of these sediments have been conducted by D&B. This sampling has been coordinated and conducted in accordance with a NYSDEC and USEPA-approved Sampling and Analysis Plan prepared by D&B.
D&B has prepared two BUD Petitions for the dredged creek sediment for the City of Glen Cove. The initial petition was approved by the NYSDEC and was prepared for the use of the sediment in the manufacture of asphalt and sub-base material, and fill for an Inactive Hazardous Waste Disposal Site located along the creek. A second petition has been prepared for submittal to the NYSDEC for use of sediment dredged in late 2006/early 2007 as alternate daily cover material (ADCM) at a local Long Island landfill. This petition involved updating the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for NYSDEC approval, coordination and oversight of the sampling program with USEPA contractors, evaluation of the sediment quality to Part 375 soil cleanup objectives for perspective, and submittal of the data to the landfill for acceptance. The sampling procedures involved the radiological screening of the sediments which was coordinated with a USEPA contractor. The landfill municipality has approved the use of the sediment as ADCM and the BUD Petition is planned for submission to the NYSDEC pending the City’s direction.
An additional sampling program conducted for the Glen Cove Creek involved the collection of soil samples on its south bank from two properties to investigate petroleum odors and sheens detected on surface water during bulkhead installation. The collection of the samples was coordinated with the City of Glen Cove Harbormaster. The soil samples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs and diesel-range organics (DRO). The results were compared to New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) Recommended Soil Cleanup Objectives (RSCOs), as well as USEPA Region III Risk-Based Concentrations (RBCs) and were found to be below the respective cleanup levels. However, based on the odors and sheen noted during the bulkhead installation, it was recommended that the area be monitored for indications of a sheen which may warrant subsequent delineation sampling and potential remediation.
Storm Water Drainage Structures Sampling
Since federal Superfund sites and inactive hazardous waste sites are present in the Glen Cove Waterfront Revitalization Area, D&B developed and conducted a sampling and evaluation program to address concerns of potential contamination in the City’s storm water drainage structures in the area. This program included the field screening and sampling of solid material present in approximately a dozen storm water catch basins. The field screening was conducted for organic vapors utilizing a photoionization detector (PID), as well as radiation. The analytical results identified levels of metals and SVOCs and were evaluated with respect to worker exposure, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure levels, as well as disposal characterization criteria.
Former Municipal Landfill Investigation
This City-owned, 23-acre New York State Superfund site was historically used as a municipal landfill which accepted municipal waste, industrial waste and incinerator ash, and a disposal site for dredge spoils from channel maintenance activities in Glen Cove Creek. Project activities included conducting a site investigation, preparation of a feasibility study to evaluate potential remedial options and recommend a remedial alternative, preparation of remedial design documents (plans and specifications) and remedial construction oversight on behalf of the City.
The site investigation included topographic mapping, a soil vapor survey, drilling of soil borings and associated soil sampling, test pit excavation and associated soil sampling, monitoring well installation, ambient air and radiation monitoring, and sampling of surface and subsurface soil, wetland sediment, seeps and groundwater. Based on the results of the investigation and risk assessment, the contaminants of concern were identified as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and low-level radionuclides in waste and soil located within a 6-acre portion of the property.
A feasibility study was performed to evaluate alternatives for remediation of waste and contaminated soil. As part of the feasibility study, a pilot study was performed to evaluate excavation and separation of waste and contaminated soil, in order to remediate the site and allow its redevelopment as commercial waterfront property. Based on the results of the pilot test, removal of waste and contaminated soil, and cover of the area with 2 feet of clean soil, were selected as the preferred remedy.
Following issuance of the Record of Decision for the site by the NYSDEC, remedial plans and specifications were prepared for public bidding and assistance was provided to the City of Glen Cove in review of the selection of a remedial contractor. During remedial construction, full-time construction oversight was provided, which included coordination with the City of Glen Cove, the NYSDEC, the NYSDOH and the USEPA which was involved in the removal of radioactive contamination from the site. Services during construction also involved review of contractor payment applications and change orders, and preparation of a report documenting the remedial construction activities.
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