New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation Investigation/Design/Construction Management Services for Former Kings Park Psychiatric Center

Posted on June 18, 2015

Client: New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation
Location: Kings Park, NY
Project Type: Investigation/Design/Construction Management Services for Former Kings Park Psychiatric Center

Major Components

  • Phase I Environmental Site Assessment
  • Phase II Environmental Site Assessment
  • Hazardous Materials Assessment (Buildings/Tunnels)
  • Hazardous Materials Abatement/Demolition Cost Estimates (Buildings/Tunnels)
  • Abatement/Demolition Contract Documents, Plans and Specifications (Buildings/Tunnels)
  • Abatement/Demolition Oversight (Buildings/Tunnels)
  • Air Sampling and Monitoring (Buildings/Tunnels)

Project Description

IntroductionKPPC map

Dvirka and Bartilucci Consulting Engineers (D&B) and TRC Engineers, Inc. (TRC) were retained by the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation (OPRHP) to undertake and complete a comprehensive environmental investigation, hazardous materials assessment, and demolition and abatement cost estimating assignment for the former Kings Park Psychiatric Center (KPPC) located in Kings Park, New York. 

A unique aspect of this project is that it involved hazardous materials assessments and the preparation of hazardous materials abatement/demolition contract documents for 48 abandoned buildings/structures containing approximately 2,400,000 square feet of enclosed space and approximately 5 miles of steam tunnels.


Historically, the former Kings Park Psychiatric Center encompassed over 500 acres and served as a mental health facility from the time it was first developed in approximately 1885 until its closure in 1996. Based on information provided from historical accounts, the facility included patient facilities, staff facilities (housing and recreation), shops, laundry facilities, power plant (steam and electricity generation), water supply wells, orchards, farmland, dairy farm, piggery, maintenance garages, hospitals, morgues, greenhouses, bakery and an ice house.

The portion of the facility on which the firm provided engineering/technical services consisted of an irregularly shaped approximate 365-acre parcel of the former KPPC. The Site has a campus-like character and is a mixture of landscaped lawn areas, open meadows, mature woods and developed areas. The developed areas consist of 48 abandoned buildings/structures containing approximately 2,400,000 square feet of enclosed space that are surrounded by paved parking lots, a roadway system, open grass areas, wooded areas and landscaping. In addition, approximately 5 miles of steam tunnels are located in this portion of the facility that contain steam pipes and condensate return lines and connect the steam plant to each of the on-site buildings and structures.    

The specific buildings/structures included in the overall scope of work are as follows:NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION

3 – Administrative Staff Residence 47 – Grounds Department
5 – Work Control – Power Plant 48 – Grounds Department
5.1 – Salt Shed 55 – Clubhouse
6 – Power House “Remains” 56 – Cafeteria/General Store
7 – Medical Surgical (Administrative Offices) 57 – Maintenance
15 – Continued Care 59 – Power Plant/Medical Records
18.1 – Staff Housing 60 – Shoe Shop
18.2 – Staff Housing 82 – Morgue
18.3 – Staff Housing 83 – Fire & Police
19 – Staff Housing 84 – Water Wells (six well houses)
21 – Drug Treatment/Geriatric 89 – Comfort Station
22 – Admissions 90 – Business Office
23 – Day Treatment 91 – Six-car Staff Garage
27 – Underground Water Storage 93 – Geriatric Infirmary
29 – Power Plant 94 – Laundry and Storage
29.1 – Smoke Stack 95 – Staff Cottage
29.2 – Tank 96 – Staff Cottage
29.3 – Piers 97 – Staff Cottage
35 – Administrative Staff Residence 98 – Staff Cottage
36 – Administrative Staff Residence 99 – Staff Cottage
37 – Staff Residences 122 – Wards 51 and 52
39 – Continued Care 123 – Dining Hall (Wards 53 and 54)
40 – Day Care 136 – Medical Support
41 – Geriatric and Ambulatory 137 – Kitchen
42 – Dining Hall 138 – Continued Care
43 – Geriatric and Ambulatory 139 – Kitchen
44 – Storehouse 140 – Crisis Residence/CESA Union Office Barge
45 – Tank

Phase I Environmental Site Assessment

A Phase I ESA was performed for the Site in accordance with the requirements of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Practice E 1527-05 to identify the existence or potential existence of recognized environmental conditions (RECs) that may affect the environmental integrity of the Site. In order to complete the Phase I ESA, the following activities were performed:

• A regulatory agency database review was performed to determine whether the Site or any neighboring properties within  pecific search radii were listed in the databases as performing or having once performed activities that may affect the  environmental integrity of the Site.

• A review of local regulatory agency files concerning the Site was performed, including files maintained by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Suffolk County Department of  Health Services, the New York State Office of Mental Health and the Town of Smithtown.

• A review of historical sources of information was performed to determine the activities conducted on-site or on neighboring  properties, including historical United States Geologic Survey Topographic Quadrangles, historical aerial photographs, historical  fire insurance maps, historical city directories, prior reports prepared for the Site and historical drawings/plans of the Site.

• Interviews were conducted with former employees and historians regarding the activities historically performed on-site, as well as interviews with current employees regarding activities currently performed on-site.

• A detailed inspection was conducted of the Site and neighboring properties, including properties or areas identified in the regulatory agency database, historical sources of information and interviews, to determine current site use and potential areas of environmental media impact.

Based on a review of the information obtained from the above sources, a total of 69 RECs were identified for the Site. The findings of the assessment were documented in a Phase I ESA report which presents a summary of the information obtained from each information source, a list of each REC identified, and recommendations for determining whether any of the RECs identified have actually impacted soil and/or groundwater quality on-site.

Phase II Environmental Site AssessmentNORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION

Based on the findings and recommendations presented in the Phase I ESA report, a Phase II ESA Work Plan was prepared to present the investigation activities required to address each REC identified in the Phase I ESA. The purpose of the site  assessment was to assess whether soil and/or groundwater integrity at the Site had been impacted by current or historical activities. The Work Plan contained a Field Sampling Plan, a Site-Specific Health and Safety Plan (HASP) and a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). Following approval of the Work Plan, the Phase II ESA field program was initiated which included the following:

• Additional file review
• Surficial assessment and surface soil sampling
• Geophysical survey
• Drainage discharge determination
• Test pit excavation
• Soil borings and subsurface soil sampling
• Groundwater monitoring well installation and sampling
• Groundwater contouring

The Phase II ESA report summarized the field activities performed, provided the results of field screening and sample analytical  results, presented findings based on information obtained during the field program and included recommendations for  addressing areas where chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the standards, criteria and guidance (SCGs) selected for  the Site. The information presented in this report was used to closeout regulatory issues related to on-site features, namely the  former ashfill and coal pile area, and to identify areas selected for remediation based on the analytical results of the environmental samples collected and analyzed during the field program.

Hazardous Materials Assessment (Buildings/Tunnels)

Due to the age of the buildings, structures and tunnels located on-site, OPRHP’s desire to demolish the buildings and the findings of the Phase I ESA, a Hazardous Materials Assessment (HMA) was undertaken. The purpose of the HMA was to determine the nature and extent of hazardous materials present in the buildings and tunnels that would have to be managed as other than construction and demolition debris (C&D). As a result, the HMA focused on determining what materials were present that must be removed prior to the overall demolition of the building and tunnels. The materials assessed during the HMA include, but may not necessary be limited to, the following items:

• Asbestos-containing materials
• Lead-based coatings
• Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing items (e.g., transformers, electrical equipment, light ballasts, coatings,  caulk, oil-filled mechanical equipment, etc.)
• Universal waste (i.e., light bulbs, batteries, mercury-containing equipment and pesticides)
• Refrigerant-containing equipment
• Oil-filled equipment
• Chemicals (e.g., tanks, containers, equipment, fire extinguishers, etc.)
• Waste requiring special handling (e.g., radioactive materials, medical waste, etc.)

NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATIONThe first step in completing this aspect of the project was to  prepare a Site-Specific Health and Safety Plan (HASP) that presented procedures and emergency response information to allow field personnel to safely enter each of the on-site buildings, structures and steam tunnels. Next, an initial reconnaissance was performed within each building, structure and section of steam tunnel. The purpose of the initial reconnaissance was to determine what materials were present that needed to be sampled, the location of the materials to determine if special structures or lifts were necessary to facilitate the sampling activity and allow the for the preparation of a work plan for this phase of the project that represents actual conditions present at the Site. Since the Site had been abandoned for a number of years prior to this project, in addition to the HMA professionals, the initial reconnaissance team also included structural engineers who were responsible for evaluating the overall structural integrity of the structures and identifying any potential health and safety concerns present within the structures that may affect performance of the project. Due to the presence of asbestos, all building, structure and tunnel entry work was performed in Level C personal protective equipment. Based on the information compiled during the initial reconnaissance, a Work Plan was prepared to describe the work to be performed during the HMA and contained a Field Sampling Plan, Site-Specific Health and Safety Plan (HASP) and a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) specific to the HMA work.

Following approval of the Work Plan, the HMA was initiated which involved entering each of the buildings, structures and steam tunnels located on-site to determine what hazardous materials were present, as well as the specific location and quantity of those materials present. Overall, in excess of 2,400,000 square feet of building structures were inspected, sampled, assessed and documented over the course of approximately 15 months.

Hazardous Material Abatement/Demolition Cost Estimates (Buildings/Tunnels)

The results of the HMA were summarized in a HMA report prepared for each building, which also included a cost estimate for abating and removing the hazardous materials identified during the assessment. Lastly, a demolition cost estimate was prepared for each building and tunnel to approximate the cost for demolishing each building following removal of the hazardous materials.

Abatement/Demolition Contract Documents, Plans and Specifications (Buildings/Tunnels)

OPRHP identified a number of buildings and structures located on-site that warranted demolition in the very near term. These “fast track” buildings, as they were referred to, were buildings that had no historical significance and had deteriorated to point where they had become too costly to renovate and presented a significant health and safety concern. As a result, demolition contract documents (plans and specifications) were prepared to allow OPRHP to competitively bid the project. The project included the demolition of the indicated building/structure and associated utilities, management of the demolition debris at both on-site and off-site locations, stabilization of the area as necessary, and restoration of the site following demolition. As presented in the contract, 50% and 100% deliverables were prepared and submitted to OPRHP for review and comment.

The “fast track” buildings included the following:NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION

• Building No. 6 – Power House Remains
• Building No. 23 – Buckman Day Treatment
• Building No. 35 – Home with Staff Residence
• Building No. 36 – Home with Staff Residence
• Building No. 47 – Dairy Barn
• Building No. 48 – Maintenance and Grounds
• Building No. 55 – Clubhouse
• Building No. 56 – Community Store
• Building No. 57 – Maintenance Store/Plumbing
• Building No. 59 – Power Plant
• Building No. 60 – Shoe Shop
• Building No. 82 – Morgue
• Building No. 122 – Inpatient 51 and 52
• Building No. 123 – Kitchen and Dining Room
• Power Plant Smokestack
• Power Plant Railroad Piers
• Power Plant Aboveground Storage Tanks and adjacent Truck Unload Area
• Power Plant Salt Storage Shed
• Barge
• Portions of existing concrete and asphalt roads/parking areas associated with these buildings
• Steam Tunnel segments associated with these buildings

Following preparation of the contract documents, the project was competitively bid using New York State’s competitive bidding  process for construction projects. The firm provided support to OPRHP during bid period by responding to inquiries raised by  the bidders. Following receipt of the bids, the firm assisted OPRHP in evaluating the bids in order to identify a qualified  contractor for bid award.

Abatement/Demolition Oversight (Buildings/Tunnels)

Prior to demolition of each selected building/structure, abatement of the hazardous materials identified within each building during the HMA was necessary. Due to the large size of the project and OPRHP’s limited resources, the firm provided oversight of the abatement contractor during these activities and also performed the third-party air monitoring required by the New York State Department of Labor’s Industrial Code Rule 56.

Once the hazardous materials were abated, the demolition contractor proceeded with demolishing the structure. The firm once again provided oversight of the demolition and site restoration activities to ensure that all activities were performed in accordance with the plans and specifications prepared for the project. Responsibilities of the firm included reviewing contractor submittals, monitoring the project schedule, maintaining detailed records, drafting correspondence, attending project meetings, reviewing contractor payment requisitions, evaluating change orders, conducting punch list and final inspections, and reviewing the contractor’s closeout report.

Air Sampling and Monitoring (Buildings/Tunnels)

The firm was responsible for performing the required independent asbestos air sampling and monitoring, as well as the overall community air and noise monitoring program, during the demolition activities to safeguard local residents and, based on the monitoring results, directing the contractor to perform corrective action as necessary.

A number of sensitive receptors are located at the perimeter of the Site in close proximity to the areas planned for demolition. These sensitive receptors include:NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION

• Kings Park – Intermediate School
• Kings Park – Rogers Middle School
• Residential Area (west side of Park)
• Residential Area (north side of Park)
• Nursing Home
• Buildings Housing Park Staff
• Residential Areas (east side of Park)
• Active Psychiatric Facility (Building 1)
• Daycare Facility
• Community Post Office
• Kings Park High School
• Active Psychiatric Facility (Buildings 150 and 151)

Accordingly, the firm planned, designed and implemented a full-time perimeter noise and air monitoring system during working hours. The noise and air monitoring program was designed and implemented consistent with the location and sequencing of the abatement/demolition by the contractor. The overall air monitoring plan was designed in general conformance with the New York State Community Air Monitoring Plan referenced in the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation’s Draft DER-10 Technical Guidance for Site Investigation and Remediation. In addition to general fugitive emissions and noise generated by the demolition activities, elevated lead levels in soil at the base of each building posed a potential hazard during demolition and soil remediation as well.

The firm utilized a web-based, wireless telemetry system for air and noise monitoring. The system was designed to relay field measurements, in real-time, to a single base station computer. The base station computer housed a central database and provided a suite of software applications, including graphical use displays and alarm notifications when pre-determined environmental thresholds were exceeded, along with report preparation capabilities.

Field measurement stations were strategically located across the site and/or adjacent to areas undergoing demolition. The field stations were equipped with both noise detection and aerosol detection for measurement of total particulates (PM-10). The field stations were located by GPS and capable of remote alarming in conjunction with PDAs and/or cell phones.

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